There are two modern applications of genetics:
(i) Genetic engineer: Genetic engineering is the technique in which the genetic constitution of an organism is altered by introducing new genes into its chromosomes. The hormone insulin was the first such product. The producing gene of mammals has been successfully introduced in certain bacteria which have been made to produce it.
(ii) Genetic counselling: Genetic counselling is the process in which a genetic disorder of the genes is treated so that the undesirable trait of parents does not inherit by the offspring. It is yet another practical aspect. Newly married couples are advised to consult a specialist regarding the possibilities of any undesirable trait which their children might inherit.